I'm considering buying a Henry. The shop doesn't have a 30-30 but can order it. They have a 44 mag.
What is the benefit or limitations of the two? Which one would I choose, and why?
You haven't stated what your intention is for the rifle.
I don't have any experience with Henry rifles specifically..
It looks like the 30-30 is new for them..
Off hand, I would go with the 30-30. This is a serious all around hunting cartridge, but again you haven't said why you want the rifle.
The plus to the 44 Mag or .357 or .45 colt caliber rifles would be if you have a matching caliber pistol..
Then you have one size bullet for two weapons. If you reload ammo, even better..
But if serious about a serious rifle caliber.. 30/30...
Also IF you are hunting, who are you hunting with?? What caliber to they carry?? Again, similar ammo between multiple guns is a plus...
I know that the Winchester 30/30 was significantly lighter than the an equivalent Marlin rifle. This can make a difference if you are lugging it around all day..
Does the Henry have the possibility of Scope Mounts??
Just some random thoughts / considerations..